(History of the Circassians in the Middle Ages and the Modern Times)
Samir H. KHOTKO, St. Petersburg University, 2002
S. H. Khotko, V. S. Agrba, R. Yu. Mugu, T. T. Kat, S. A. Shevatsukova
SCOTLAND AND CIRCASSIA
15 - pp. 911-914
The hirety proposes primary social-economic position the regions, which nead soldiers. So, the centre of the hirety, the country which is stabile suppling the soldiers of good luck, as a rule is less developed. It is not so good there and very often bad harvest. The political unstable, the common anxiety state, are the circumstances which train the man, who is ready to risk in the alien land because of the Money and respect among likeselfs. The suggestional plan of the withdrawing fall back is fair for the majority of ethnic social groups in Europe, Near East, North Africa. But it stops to act, it means to explain the hirety in Scotland and Circassian. The likeness of the customs, militar cultures anthropologic types convict us that, this two people are from one source: their most ancient and early medieval ethnogenetical roots are closely interlaced.
British travellers, having been in Circassia noted the likeness of the social foundations. ‘‘In fact, - wrote missis Harvey, - the dependence in Circassia very reminded the clan system in ancient Scotland: every man is proud of connection with his leader and the leader considers that it is his duty to protect his subject and to take their offenders reverge’’. J.P. Cameron gives the particularly attention to the likeness Circassian and Scotland dances: ‘‘On the one side might be seen groups of beautiful dancing-girls, figuring in the slow and graceful movement of the country, or exhibiting the more active and vigorous steps of the Circassian dance – which, by-the-by, I should not omit to mention, forms as nearly as possible a counterpart of our Highland Fling. The Count de N-e and myself were together in Persia, Georgia, and Circassia, and afterwards at St. Petersburg, where I left him, at the expiration of 1838, on being ordered to England. When we next met, it was in London, at the Caledonian ball, Jully, 1840, after my second return from Constantinople. I shall ever remember his expression of surprise on witnessing the first reel, where the noblest and fairest of our northern aristocracy were footing it away right merrily, as, turning to me, he said, ‘‘Why, your national dance is the same as that which we witnessed in the Circassian mountains’’.
Ethnocultural appearance of Circassians excited by Scotland watchers the feeling of great sympathy to all Circassians. M.J. Lermontov who knew his Scotland origin, admired the Circassians, their country and their culture. His poem ‘‘Ismail-bey’’, and also ‘‘Circassians’’ and the number of his works are the monuments, the heroic epic to Circassian struggle for independence. As an epigraph this poet used Circassian theme from Byron ‘‘So moved on the earth Circassia’s daughter, the loveliest bird of Frangistan’’. The collection of Circassian weapons and arms had the famous Walter Scott who sang the phrases of Scotland mountaineers. His novel ‘‘Talisman’’ contains perfect description of Saladin’s Mamluks – Circassians and Georgians. Philipson, the Russian general from Scotland, who commanded the troops in Circassia, in his memoirs was very delighted with Circassian rides and arms; he was one of the first who created the historical work about Circassian are: Robert Layell, James Cameron, David Urquhart. The last was a big opponent of Russia in Caucasus; he was in Circassia a lot of times active and successful offered interests of Circassians in Parliament and government of England. He experienced for Circassians and their fight: he bought for his money the arms and provisions and sent to Circassia. One more big Scotchman had series supported Circassians, but this time Circassians of Egypt, lord Stuart, personal friend of Muhammad bey al-Alfy, the Chief of Mamluks of Egypt in 1801-1807. Lord Stuart commanded the English troops in Egypt and east Mediterranean Sea. He supported Circassians Mamluks in their fight against Osmans (Ottomans) and the French Evacuating his tooprs leaved a number of military loads Stuart took to London al-Alfy and his Emirs with him to organize the social opinion (official London supported Osmans). There is a question: is the sympathy of Scotts to Circassia chance? Probably no. It was defined by the common elements of culture.
If the ancient Celts were a long time under ethnocultural influence of Hattusa and Maikop, so direct ancestors of modern Scotts – are tribes of Briths, Scotts, and Picts – had absorbed a lot of Yazigs, Adyghe rider of west Caucasus, who began their way from Sarmatia and stopped at the Hadrian Wall in Britain. 5500 Yazigs wanted to apply to Marcus Aurelius for military hirety to move to Britain, but before it they settle in Pannonia (Hungary) and they beard two wars with Rome.
Unlike Scotland in Pannonia there are no tracks of Adyghes: there were to many tribes and states. Their tracks we can see at the North Scotland, thanks to next circumstances:
1. it was the end point of Yaziges migration; in Scotland, exactly in their South plain part and settled sarmat rides;
2. from that time the population was not changed descendants of those Celts.
Among which settled Adyghe, leved here at X-th a. and also now. Because of this two important things we can conclusion that considerable number of Scotland families are by origin Yazigs-metanasts, who brings to Caledonia his rider traditions, arms. Asteological researches which where made in Island show that exactly at Yazigs period here appears horses of North Black sea type.
The most indelible poor Yaziges or Adyghes staying in Britain – it is the epos of King Arthur and knights of the round table. B. Bachrach considered that there are usurpers-sarmats, fine riders, experts of the etiquette, cruel antiheroes, vain and courageous. They always there, where the war is, dressed in refined riders armings. First of all refined in technological connection: such chivalrous armings appeared in the West Europe only in the XII-XIV centuries. Typologicaly Yazigs, invaded the Britain in the II century, were not differ from Barquqs riders, who usurpated the Egypt and Syria in 1376-1395 years. If we address to the history of Scottish military withdrawal and make the reasons of the Circassian engage, allow us exactly imagine the ethnic-social task of this phenomenon.
The Scotland engagement, was beginning at the epoc of Rome, and going on now had the strong splashes at that time when this area didn’t know wars and plague. But the intensity of the hunger. The Scotland engagement is not an aspiration to survive and to enrich oneself. This is continuation their mod of life, the displaying of the knights mentality. The thirst for exploits, the aspiration to realize their self as heros rushed the Scotchman to the long campaign. Great reachment visited the mountaineer of Caledonia and left him also very fast: it was not his care and his purpose. It is a big mistake to consider the Scotland mountaineers and Circassian mountaineers bad farmers. In refraction to the Circassian theme it means in evitablement of the polemics with it means inevitablement of the polemics with the men who go on to see the reasons of the Caucasus war in the ‘‘poverty’’ Circassians. The paradox is in that, the Russian historiography of social and cultural life Adyghes always amire with the level of agriculture, in the Circassian epoc. In the war, the Cossacks solt by ‘‘wild’’ mountaineers hundreds thousands pounds of bread every year. At the same moment the Russian historiography’s of Caucasian war consider it’s causes to the poverty primitive economy by the Circassians and Chechens hungry and disparate they started into the raid to the ‘‘heavy’ Russian settlements. Quite the reverse Adyghes, Ubykhs, Abkhazians and Vainakhs we have seen that the climate of this aria is very nice and they have all products they want, the best horses, cloths and so on, they colls the best army of word – Russians and Osmans. And the beggar Russian peasants weren’t for nobody interesting. The Russian generals considered the Circassian cavalry the best in the world and aspired to engage at least a little number Adyghes for their companies in Hungaria, Poland and Balkan, Mts.
The institute of the foster relationship in Scotland and in Circassia the same was one of the important circumstances, which were feeding the foundations of the withdrawal. M.O. Kosven is the only specialist of the Russian ethnology, who made comparison between Celto-Norman order with North-Caucasus: ‘‘the order of education the children is the same. We can see it also in Scandinavian lands for example and in Island and the population of the England Celts Ireland and Wales. In the England literature this order names fosterage. The fosterage in Ireland, especially by the domination class remains at the Middle of the XVIII c. As in the Caucasus, also in the Ireland the people to get for foster children of kings or somebody of domination estates. Between the child and the tutor remains the close connection – more it happened also that the pupil was fighting against his father’s relatives. In Scandinavia and by England Celts we have, learning the order which is interesting for us, feudal society like at the Caucasus’’.
The cultivating of the reception relationship had a purpose to foster a warrior the early parting with the parents, trained to part with native places. The fosterage was able to be engage. The soldiers 12-age, Circassians went to dangerous adventures.
The community system fosterage by Scotts and Circassians, the similar of the social functions is so evident, that give rise identifical descriptions. W. Popper characterizes the system of the reception relationship Circassian Mamluks at the same details as Kosven who made the same reference to Celts: ‘‘The Circassians differ from other peoples of the Caucasus in racial characteristics, customs, and language. The feeling of tribal unity was strongly developed among them and they practiced a type of foster Kinship by swearing brotherhood. Children at birth were handed, over to strangers to be brought up and were protected like natural children; foster parents were treated with great respect and foster brothers were very loyal to one another’’. D. Ayalon on the basis of the analyse given Mamluks chronicles, was writing: ‘‘At the Circassian epoc the elderly parents of the notable Emirs fortred the suns of the Sultan and it corresponded to the politic of the respect and honour to elderly, which was pushing with Circassians’’. (‘‘A l’époque circassienne le pourcentage de parents des grands amirs élevés avec les fils du sultan était considérable, ce qui correspondait á une politique suivivie de préférence pratiquée par les circassiennes á l’egard de leurs parents’’). The Phenomenon of the fosterage connected with the necessity of reproduction of the mortial and militar arts from generation to generation. Circassians and Celts used the fosterage as the most effective shield at the way to the Harems degradation the weaken influence of the native train – the more coddled when the family is rich.